Skip to main content# IMAGINING THE DETAILED CONCLUSIONS OF THIS CENTURY’S PHYSICS (AND WORLD) ALTERING PARADIGM SHIFT

Published onApr 06, 2024

IMAGINING THE DETAILED CONCLUSIONS OF THIS CENTURY’S PHYSICS (AND WORLD) ALTERING PARADIGM SHIFT

**ABSTRACT AND INTRODUCTION**

Science has thousands of years of progress behind it. There can never be total abandonment of the randomness and purely mechanistic picture which previous centuries has given us. But there can be a subtle shift in the direction of a user-friendly and more certain universe (even incorporation of certainty at the level of quantum mechanics). This might be summed up this way - when a complete theory of Quantum Gravity arrives and unites Quantum Mechanics with General Relativity, the heat produced by each of its seemingly closed systems wouldn’t simply be wasted. The energy created by the entropic 2nd Law of Thermodynamics would be diverted into the 1st Law of Thermodynamics i.e. the total mass-energy in the universe would forever remain constant, with mass and energy being converted into one another. It might be said that although no component of the universe can display the perpetual motion of existing forever, it’s plausible to regard the entire universe (entirety of spacetime) as in perpetual motion.

Anticipated certainty in quantum mechanics means it’s entirely possible that there may not even be a red giant phase for the Sun. This relies on entropy being looked at from another angle - with the apparent randomness in quantum and cosmic processes obeying Chaos theory, in which there's a hidden order behind apparent randomness. This apparent randomness is due to the binary digits of one and zero being Hidden Variables that are compatible with quantum entanglement. Expansion to a Red Giant could then be described with the Information Theory vital to the Internet, mathematics, deep space, etc. In information theory, entropy is defined as a logarithmic measure of the rate of transfer of information. This definition introduces a hidden exactness, removing superficial probability. It suggests it's possible for information to be transmitted to objects, processes, or systems and restore them to a previous state - like refreshing (reloading) a computer screen. Potentially, the Sun could be prevented from becoming a red giant and returned to a previous state in a billion years (or far less) - and repeatedly every billion years - so Earth could remain habitable permanently.

When liquid from a tap is filling a bottle, why does the sound's pitch increase as the bottle fills? On one hand, this is an example of the Doppler shift. As the distance between the liquid in the container and the water leaving the tap decreases, some of the frequencies in the air contained in the bottle rise, and you hear the pitch go up. Cosmically, this is analogous to two galaxies – e.g. Andromeda and the Milky Way – approaching each other and experiencing blueshift. Should the tap water and water in the bottle increase the distance between each other, frequencies in the bottle’s air would lower and pitch goes down. Earth and a star millions of light years away represent this by redshift, and an expanding universe is apparently proven. But there’s another way to make the pitch rise and fall (make the cosmic Doppler shift blue or red) – gravitational lensing combined with what may be called cQED or comoving Quantum ElectroDynamics.

In between these topics, light refraction and gravitational lensing lead to black holes being related to topological insulators and Majorana fermions. This proposes a unique composition of something deemed to be elementary and fundamental – the photon. The uniqueness offers a paradigm-shifting view of the nature of reality which speaks of topology, Wick rotation, Vector-Tensor-Scalar (VTS) Geometry, and elliptical VTS Geometry. This geometry has the potential to add to our understanding of consciousness, matter, nuclear forces, the Higgs boson, planetary and black-hole formation. Finally, the Majorana fermion is directly related to the Riemann hypothesis which – with help from Wick rotation and the inverse square law – is connected with dark matter and dark energy, as well as intergalactic and time travel.

Added afterthoughts to this article are these three sections –

**EXTENDING THE HIGGS BOSON / FIELD OF VTS GEOMETRY TO THE CONSCIOUSNESS OF eVTS GEOMETRY**

**QUANTUM METROLOGY WITH JOHN WHEELER, PLUS BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION IN A SIMULATED AND HOLOGRAPHIC UNIVERSE **(A simulation is made of computer 1’s and 0’s. In principle, it’s possible to make a hologram from any type of wave – in this case, not only from light but all forms of electromagnetic, as well as gravitational, waves)

**BINARY DIGITS LEAD TO NO HUNGER, NO POVERTY, AND WORLD PEACE**

Keywords: **Paradigm shift, Quantum gravity, Thermodynamics, Riemann hypothesis, Wick rotation, gravitation, Electromagnetism, Quantum precision, Simulated and holographic universe, World peace**

**LENSING – NOT UNIVERSAL EXPANSION – EXPLAINS DOPPLER SHIFT**

In cQED, disturbances in space-time can't travel light years but only the quantum-scale distances between photons and gravitons, exciting them to the various amplitudes and frequencies of electromagnetic and gravitational waves which are repeatedly absorbed and re-radiated. Comparing the photons and gravitons to the decreasing distance between water leaving the tap and the water level in the bottle, this repetition billions of times per millimetre can be interpreted as rising pitch and as blueshift. When light from a galaxy billions of light years away is refracted around a galaxy mere millions of light years distant, the light’s path is lengthened and the distance increase caused by gravitational lensing can be compared to larger distance between the water leaving the tap and the water level in the bottle … this leads to decreasing pitch … and it also results in redshift.

We saw that “Comparing the photons and gravitons to the decreasing distance between water leaving the tap and the water level in the bottle, this repetition … can be interpreted as rising pitch and as blueshift”. In a similar way - repetition, reducing the distance between Earth and the distant galaxy, might appear capable of producing blueshift. Why doesn’t the vastly greater number of repeated absorptions /** **re-radiations in this longer light path cause blueshift? Because direction of electric and magnetic fields is altered. When fields are no longer aligned with their previous states, repetition is less effective or partially interrupted and can’t result in blueshift. It's well known that solutions refract electromagnetic waves of light passing through them. Similarly, the gravitational and electromagnetic (GEM) waves resulting from particles suspended in solution (the photons and gravitons of fluid space-time) would be **bent around massive objects in space or gravitationally lensed (see the section BLACK HOLES AS TOPOLOGICAL INSULATORS)** and this refraction alters orientation of Fig. 1’s magnetic and electric fields. When the gravitational and electromagnetic waves enter the solution and are lensed, changing orientation by, say, 45 degrees**;** the electric fields no longer possess up-down motion but have a tendency to vibrate left to right. If the orientation change continues to 90 degrees, the left-right tendency becomes a certainty and, using the right-hand rule, we see that the direction of the magnetic force pushing on the moving charge is altered by 90 degrees. The doubling from 45 to 90 is important. If the angle of incidence of the GEM waves is 90 degrees, the potential exists for the electric fields to be inverted 180 degrees.

The previous typing can be summed up with the equation 180° ΔO = + => - (180 Degree Change in Orientation Equals Positive Becomes Negative).

Actually - redshift is magnified and, if not compensated for, gives unreliable measurements in astronomy. The “distance increase caused by gravitational lensing can be compared to larger distance between the water leaving the tap and the water level in the bottle”. This leads to decreasing pitch … and also results in redshift (in this case, more redshift added to the un-lensed redshift).

**Figure 1 – Electromagnetic Wave Showing the Perpendicular Magnetic and Electric Fields, Plus the Wavelength Denoted by Greek Letter Lambda λ (the Black Arrow Indicates the Direction of Propagation)**

**BLACK HOLES AS TOPOLOGICAL INSULATORS**

General Relativity states that starlight is refracted 1.75 arcseconds by the Sun’s gravity and mass. (1) If refraction equalled 360 degrees, the light would be permanently trapped inside the Sun. This doesn’t happen in our star but places exist where light is confined this way – black holes. There are 1,296,000 arcseconds in the 360 degrees of a circle, so 1,296,000/1.75 gives the mass required to sequester light in a spherical pattern (740,571.429). If the light beam travels in a circular loop having a diameter of one arcsecond, 206,265 such loops could fit into the sphere. (2) Dividing the spherical pattern by the number of loops (740,571/200,265) results in a black-hole mass of 3.698 solar masses. This fits perfectly with the predicted lower mass of stellar black holes being 2-5 solar masses. (3)

The photons of light imprisoned in the black hole bear distinct resemblance to Majorana fermions. The Majorana fermion was predicted in 1937 by Italian physicist Ettore Majorana playing with the equations of quantum physics. Like a photon, a Majorana fermion has no mass. It also has no charge, despite being made of a bunch of negatively charged electrons. (4) Photons aren’t composed of electrons but their similarity to Majorana particles may be explained by their being composed of something similar to electrons. This something would not have material form but its nature derives from the wave aspect in quantum mechanics’ wave-particle duality. This immaterial composition of photons is the software used in electronics. The BITS or binary digits of one and zero ^ use electrical waves – their presence can signify a “one” while their absence can signify a ”zero”.

^ How could the strange concept of photons being comprised of binary digits (base 2 mathematics) be reconciled with the nature of reality? Let's build on the opinion of Max Tegmark, MIT professor of cosmology, that the universe is literally composed of mathematics. (5) Building on his belief, let's say electronics' binary digits (BITS) of 1 and 0 - aka base 2 maths - are the ultimate composition of, and are used to "draw" or encode, Mobius strips. Then two Mobius strips can unite to form a figure-8 Klein bottle. Trillions of Mobius strips can form a photon, and trillions of more complex figure-8 Klein bottles can form the more complex graviton (the photon and graviton would form from the topological Mobius and Klein, thus producing gravitational-electromagnetic unity). (Photons and gravitons would interact via what I call vector-tensor-scalar geometry with the pressures exerted from their interaction producing all mass – even the Higgs boson’s - and also producing wave-particle duality.) The 4th dimension of time is the Wick Rotation built into the Mobius strips. Wick rotation (time) is built into the Mobius strips and figure-8 Klein bottles composing electromagnetism's photons and gravitation's gravitons. Therefore, all time (the entire past and present and future) is united into one thing just as all space and all mass are entangled into one thing by retarded and advanced waves cancelling. * (1+1=2 is an obvious impossibility in a unified universe where all things are entangled and there can only ever be One.) In a procedure called **sky replacement**, computers can take a patch of blue sky in a digital picture and extrapolate it so it fills the scene from horizon to horizon. This “cancels” clouds, birds, etc. Similarly, the binary digits of the universe can cancel the seeming reality of there being a past and future, making the actual reality of an eternal present (an eternal present is necessary if we’re going to travel to the past, which must always exist – and to the future, which must already exist).

**CHANGING HISTORY AND ADVANCED WAVES TRAVELLING BACK IN TIME**

* Michio Kaku wrote, “When we solve (19th-century Scottish physicist James Clerk) Maxwell's equations for light, we find not one but two solutions: a 'retarded' wave, which represents the standard motion of light from one point to another; but also an 'advanced' wave, where the light beam goes backward in time.” (6)

Einstein's equations say gravitational fields carry enough information about electromagnetism to allow Maxwell's equations to be restated in terms of these gravitational fields. This was discovered by the mathematical physicist George Yuri Rainich in 1925. Therefore, gravitational waves might also possess retarded and advanced portions. (7)

In his 2022 Internet article "Advanced Waves Detected", John G. Cramer wrote “In summary, it appears that advanced waves do exist and have been detected. Much more work must be done to ensure that this effect is real and can be extended, but the physics implications are gigantic.” (8)

When a dinosaur dies, the advanced gravitational and electromagnetic waves composing its particles would continue traveling back in time. By the time its bones or fossilized remains, or the surrounding rocks, were subjected to modern science's dating methods**;** those advanced waves might have gone so far back in time that the dating method says the dinosaur died 100 million or more years before it did. Radioactive dating is thus a form of (advanced) gravitational-wave detection, just as LIGO - the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory - picks up (retarded) gravitational waves. Technology based on the way noise-cancelling headphones work might provide a more accurate reading of when the dinosaur lived. The headphones increase the signal-to-noise ratio by incorporating a microphone that measures ambient sound (noise), generating a waveform that is the exact negative of the ambient sound, and mixing it with any audio signal the listener desires. Generating a waveform that's the exact opposite of the advanced waves emitted by the deceased dinosaur should, at least partially, neutralize the advanced waves and restrict measurement to the retarded waves associated with the animal’s decay. Advanced waves also cause living creatures to age faster than they would without those waves, by extending the creatures' reach into the past (this is equivalent to having lived longer). Neutralizing the advanced waves should dramatically increase the health and lifespan of humans and all other species if it doesn't adversely affect anatomy and physiology i.e. if the retarded waves which go forward in time are sufficient for normal structure and function.

Stars and galaxies etc. send us retarded light which, through spectroscopy, gives an approximate measurement of how long that light has been travelling (the distance to the astronomical body). The light includes an advanced component that reaches back into the past, producing a measurement that significantly exceeds the real distance. The farther away a star or galaxy is, the more the advanced part of waves from it will reach into the past before reaching Earth, giving us a greater inaccuracy regarding its true distance. This increase is analogous to redshift increasing with distance. We might call it readshift - re(tarded) ad(vanced) shift. Readshift would explain the astronomical results which were interpreted as accelerating expansion of the universe. Surveyed supernovas would appear fainter, therefore apparently farther away than they truly are. Unless advanced waves are considered a possibility, the only rational way to move a supernova from its true nearer location to its apparent, distant position is to conclude the universe has expanded.

I don't think it'll be possible to change history or to reprogram something to behave differently from the way future history has recorded. This is because I believe time can be visualized as a Cosmic DVD where our brains and consciousnesses take the place of the Earthly DVD player's laser. If we view events from prior to the disk’s formation, it appears that we have total control and, therefore, free will. If we look back from the end of the DVD, it appears that destiny rules and free will is an illusion. Everything in the Cosmic DVD's time exists at once but we're only aware of an extremely limited number of events at any instant (these make up our present).

**VECTOR-TENSOR-SCALAR (VTS) GEOMETRY**

“Dust grains assemble by chemical bonding. Once they are sand or gravel sized, how they continue to stick is a mystery. Metre-sized rocks should spiral into the star rapidly due to disk drag (the gas orbits a little slower than the rocks as a pressure gradient partially supports it). Once rocks somehow get past these barriers, they collide with each other in in a chaotic and random way assembling the planets.” (9)

The following method of building planets is preferred to collisions between rocks and dust in the disk because most planetary systems seem to outweigh the protoplanetary disks in which they formed, leaving astronomers to re-evaluateplanet-formation theories. (10)

Explanation of geometric display of mathematics’ vectors, scalars, and tensor calculus adapted from (11)

A vector is a quantity which possesses both magnitude and direction. Two such quantities acting on a point may be represented by two adjoining sides of a parallelogram, so that their resultant is represented in magnitude and direction by the diagonal of the parallelogram (AD and CD, for example, can symbolize the electromagnetic and gravitational vectors … while the resultant green diagonal of DB substitutes for the interaction of those two forces). A scalar variable is representable by a position on a line, having only magnitude e.g. the red dot on the diagonal, symbolic of the Higgs boson. A tensor is a set of functions which, when changing from one set of coordinates to another, are transformed in a precisely defined manner (e.g. changing from the coordinates of AD and CD to those of the green diagonal, or of the red dot, is a transformation performed in a particular way).

Two sides thus illustrate the graviton's spin 2 and the photon's spin 1. The resultant diagonal represents the interaction of the sides/vectors (1÷2 = the spin ½ of every matter particle). Tensor calculus changes the coordinates of the sides and diagonal into the coordinates of a single (scalar) point on the diagonal. This scalar point is associated with particles of spin zero. (12) If the mass produced during the photon-graviton interaction (the energy and momentum of photons and presently hypothetical gravitons produces a pressure we call mass*) happens to be 125 GeV/c^2, its union with spin 0 produces the Higgs boson.** 125 GeV/c^2 united with spin 0 means the central scalar point of the Higgs boson is related to the vector of the graviton’s spin 2, and the Higgs field is therefore united with the supposedly unrelated gravitational field (together with the latter’s constant interaction with the electromagnetic field).

* Material from a star could fall onto a neutron star, heating it up and causing it to emit radiation. Then the energy and momentum of the photons and presently hypothetical gravitons would be the interaction of electromagnetism (the charged particles and strong magnetism) with the neutron star's powerful gravity. This results in wave-particle duality. The heating could produce gravitational and electromagnetic radiation which would produce the mass and quantum spin of subatomic particles - instead of only radiation being emitted, jets of matter would be emitted too (normally, the matter would be emitted as beams or jets from the neutron star’s magnetic poles).

** GeV/c² originates with Einstein’s formula equating mass with energy: E=mc^2. Solving the equation for m results in m=E/c^2**:** mass equals 125 giga electron volts divided by the speed of light squared. 125 GeV/c^2 united with spin 0 means the central scalar point of the Higgs boson is related to the vector of the graviton’s spin 2, and the Higgs field is therefore united with the gravitational field - together with the latter’s constant interaction with the electromagnetic field. Squaring the speed of light results in a very large number since that velocity is 299,792 kilometres per second, but this speed refers to the gravitational wave (space-time disturbance) which excites photons. The photons in electromagnetic waves are relatively fixed in position, merely bobbing up and down like the particles of water in similarly transverse ocean waves, and have a speed assigned the value zero. Any mathematical operation involving zero can be regarded as an operation not performed and dividing 125 by 0 - the speed of the photons - squared does not change the Higgs boson’s mass from the experimentally verified 125 giga electron volts.

**BOSONS OF THE NUCLEAR FORCES **

It must be remembered that referring to space alone is incomplete. Living in space-time, it’s necessary to add some sentences about the time factor. The photon must interact with the graviton to produce the mass of the weak nuclear force’s W and Z bosons. To produce their quantum spin, the photon’s spin 1 needs to react with the graviton’s spin 2. That is, the photon’s turning through one complete revolution needs to be combined with the graviton’s being turned through two half-revolutions*. Incorporating the time factor as a reversal of time (Richard Feynman, 20th-century winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics, used reversal-of-time to explain antimatter) in the middle of the interaction: a gravitonic half revolution is subtracted from the photonic full revolution then the graviton’s time-reversal adds a half revolution (1-½+½ = the spin 1 of W and Z bosons). The strong nuclear force’s gluon’s quantum spin of 1 could arise in the same way as the spin 1 of weak-force bosons. Most reactions in this section may be explicable purely by the retarded portions of waves interacting. The masslessness of gluons might be produced by retarded and advanced waves cancelling. They neutralize each other, producing a mass of zero and relating gluons to the Higgs boson whose zero quantity is its quantum spin.

* Professor Stephen Hawking writes, (13) - "What the spin of a particle really tells us is what the particle looks like from different directions."

Spin 1 is like an arrow-tip pointing, say, up. A photon has to be turned round a full revolution of 360 degrees to look the same.

Spin 2 is like an arrow with 2 tips - 1 pointing up, 1 down. A graviton has to be turned half a revolution (180 degrees) to look the same.

Spin 0 is like a ball of arrows having no spaces. A Higgs boson looks like a dot: the same from every direction.

Spin ½ is logically like a Mobius strip, though Hawking doesn’t specifically say so. This is because a particle of matter has to be turned through two complete revolutions to look the same, and you must travel around a Mobius strip twice to reach the starting point.

**EXTENDING THE HIGGS BOSON / FIELD OF VTS GEOMETRY TO THE CONSCIOUSNESS OF eVTS GEOMETRY**

**Figure 3 – Simplified Elliptical VTS Geometry: Earth's Orbit Around The Sun Is An Ellipse. Public domain image modified by author.**

The parallelogram of Fig. 2 can be converted by the morphing ability of computer programming so it traces the elliptical shape in Fig. 3 – and of Earth’s elliptical orbit, which means the vector / tensor / scalar relationship applies to this planet. The vector can be the magnitude and direction of the orbiting Earth itself. It and a second vector (Earth months later in its orbit) are converted by tensor analysis into the coordinates of a single scalar point. In the paragraph below Fig. 2, adding the geometrical objects of vector and tensor resulted in the object termed scalar. Successful conversion of the vectors in Fig. 2's parallelogram to the vectors in Fig. 3's ellipse, followed by tensor analysis, means our planet is also a scalar object. It has magnitude but no direction, and the innumerable spins of particles composing the planet are reduced to that of a boson possessing spin 0. Like a Bose-Einstein Condensate, such particles have no restriction on the number of them that occupy the same quantum state (their description and predicted behaviour). This lack of restriction is compatible with Earth never having any direction. This state is only possible if it has magnitude occupying a literally infinite and eternal amount of space-time, thus having no need of direction and being capable of possessing the same quantum state as any other body. The Earth appears obviously finite and insignificant because of the limitations of our technology (limited to this century, with no tangible input from future ones) together with the limits of our illusion-susceptible bodily senses. Since they’d need to adapt to Earth’s infinity, all other bodies in space-time would similarly reduce the innumerable spins of particles composing them to that of a boson possessing spin 0 (they’d only possess magnitude, would possess the same quantum state - and would be scalar, infinite bodies). Invoking infinity in its procedures, a quantum computer simultaneously uses the BITS (strings of 1’s and 0’s, reminiscent of String Theory) renaming them quantum bits or QUBITS.

Occupying all time, vector-1 Earth must be united with vector-2 Earth (the one existing months later in its orbit). Traditionally, the scalar is no more than a point on a line, and consequently limited to that point’s boundaries. In this article, the scalar is a restricted point which is described by familiar mathematics. But simultaneously it’s a boundaryless, unlimited field described by quantum-mechanical duality (simultaneously limited and unlimited), as well as by what are called imaginary numbers – Wick rotation aka the Circle of *i* uses imaginary numbers and is built into the Mobius strips composing particles, thus turning space into space-time. [Professor Stephen Hawking says that boundaries and singularities exist in what is called “real” time but don’t exist in what is termed “imaginary” time. (14)] The scalar is without boundaries because it’s associated with the zero spin of the Higgs boson, and thence with the cosmic Higgs field. So the scalar point identified with other bodies in space-time (including living bodies and minds) is actually part of the scalar field or Higgs field, with consciousness being boundaryless instead of being limited to one tiny part of space-time (the brain). Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity says gravity is the curvature of space-time, and therefore IS space-time. The universal Higgs field can be identified with the universal gravitational field (together with the latter’s constant interaction with the electromagnetic field).

**BLACK HOLES AS TOPOLOGICAL INSULATORS (CONTINUED)**

Black holes also resemble topological insulators. The insulators conduct current on their surface but the interior acts as an electrical insulator. The holes’ inner regions may also act as insulators by means of “twisting” of valence and conduction bands restricting motion of electromagnetic photons to their insides.

“In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electric current can exist. In graphs of the electronic band structure of solids, the band gap generally refers to the energy difference (in electron volts) between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band in insulators and semiconductors. It is the energy required to promote a valence electron bound to an atom to become a conduction electron, which is free to move within the crystal lattice and serve as a charge carrier to conduct electric current. It is closely related to the HOMO/LUMO gap^ in chemistry. If the valence band is completely full and the conduction band is completely empty, then electrons cannot move in the solid; however, if some electrons transfer from the valence to the conduction band, then current can flow. Therefore, the band gap is a major factor determining the electrical conductivity of a solid. Substances with large band gaps are generally insulators, those with smaller band gaps are semiconductors, while conductors either have very small band gaps or none, because the valence and conduction bands overlap.” (15) (see Figure 4)

^ Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital, respectively. “molecular orbital” is a mathematical function describing the wave-like behavior of an electron in a molecule. The energy difference between the HOMO and LUMO is termed the HOMO–LUMO gap.

**Figure 4 - A sketch of the bandgap between valence band and conduction band in insulators and semiconductors. (Public Domain image)**

**BLACK HOLES AND UNNATURAL FERMIONS**

**Figure 5 – Paths Travelled by Electrons When Using the 2nd Aspect of Wave-Particle Duality and When Describing Weyl and Majorana Fermions**

Side DC of parallelogram = Vector 1 electrons**;** Side DA = Vector 2 electrons. The two vectors (two groups of charged electrons) interact to form the resultant diagonal DB (the electrons travel ADB and CDB, coming together to behave like a single charged particle called a Weyl fermion). Tensor calculus converts the points on the sides and diagonal into a single scalar point on a nominated side (say, in the centre of the diagonal). And the mass of the vector 1 electrons minus the mass of the vector 2 electrons [(x MeV/c^2) - (x MeV/c^2)] equals zero, and the massless Weyl. About 90 years ago, while experimenting with the equations of quantum physics, German physicist Hermann Weyl showed that a massless and charged particle (now called the Weyl fermion) could theoretically exist. (16)

In the case of the Majorana fermion, the electrons flow in the reverse direction. They go in the BD direction, then split and follow the paths DA and DC. This preserves information if one pathway is interfered with. They produce the chargeless Majorana because the negative vector-1 electrons minus the negative vector-2 electrons equal (-y) - (-y) = 0. The Majorana’s lack of mass is attributed to the same process by which the Weyl particle becomes massless (see previous paragraph).

Why is subtraction essential? This appears to be a consequence of matter, and the Higgs boson, both emerging from photon-graviton interaction. Two adjoining sides of a parallelogram can also represent the vectors of the photon’s spin 1 and the graviton’s spin 2. The resultant diagonal represents the interaction of the sides/vectors (1÷2 = the spin ½ of every matter particle: and division is merely repeated subtraction e.g. 4 subtracted from 20 five times equals zero, therefore 20 ÷ 4 = 5). These methods of producing quantum spin and the number zero lead to creation of the Higgs boson’s spin 0.

The interacting gravity and electromagnetism in photon-graviton interaction produce both bosons and fermions e.g. they can form a Higgs boson or the strong/weak nuclear forces’ bosons as well as matter. On a cosmic level - if gravitational and electromagnetic waves focus on a protoplanetary disc surrounding a newborn star, the quantum spin of the particles of matter in the disc (1/2) could imprint itself on the waves’ interaction and build up a planet layer by layer from the photon-graviton interaction’s 1÷2 operation. If the waves focus on a region of space where there’s no matter, the opposite interaction occurs and the graviton’s spin 2 is divided by the photon’s spin 1 to produce 2÷1. The mass produced has the spin inherent in each of the gravitons composing spacetime - and could be an alternative, or complementary, method to supernovas for producing the gravitational waves making up black holes.

Quaternions were first described by Irish mathematician William Rowan Hamilton in 1843. Hamilton defined a quaternion as the quotient of two vectors. (17) In this case: the quotient of two vectors is 1/2, the division of the electromagnetic vector (photonic quantum spin of 1) by the gravitational vector (gravitonic quantum spin of 2). In other words, the term "diagonal" (like 1/2, the result of these 2 vectors interacting) in photon-graviton interaction can be replaced with the term "quaternion". (Of course, the vectors may be reversed to give the black hole quaternion of 2/1). A hologram’s appearance differs depending on which direction it’s viewed from. The universe may - as proposed by Gerard ‘t Hooft, Leonard Susskind, and AdS/CFT correspondence - be holographic. (18) This article’s interpretation of the Holographic Principle says a volume of 3-dimensional space can be thought of as encoded on a lower dimension – in this article, the 2-dimensional Mobius strip. A hologram’s property of looking different depending on the direction it’s viewed from might account for the matter-particle quaternion of 1/2 becoming the black-hole quaternion of 2/1, as well as permitting spin ½ to be interchangeable with spin 0.

**RIEMANN HYPOTHESIS, DARK MATTER, AND INTERGALACTIC / TIME TRAVEL**

The chargeless Majorana fermion’s negative vector-1 electrons minus the negative vector-2 electrons equalling (-y) - (-y) = 0 is directly related to the Riemann hypothesis below. Albert Einstein used Riemannian geometry when formulating his General Relativity. It should therefore be conceivable that another work by Georg Riemann (the Riemann Hypothesis published in 1859) might, with help from Wick Rotation and the inverse-square law, go beyond Special Relativity's statements about the light cone, and about the speed of light being a cosmic speed limit.

**Figure 6 – WICK ROTATION: “The complex plane reveals i’s special relationship with cycles via the circle of i, also known as Wick rotation. Whenever a point on the complex plane is multiplied by i, it moves a quarter rotation around the origin or center of the plane.” (19) (public domain figure supplied by WordPress).**

The Riemann hypothesis, proposed in 1859 by the German mathematician Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann, is fascinating. It seems to fit these ideas on various subjects in physics very well. The Riemann hypothesis doesn’t just apply to the distribution of prime numbers but can also apply to the fundamental structure of the mathematical universe’s space-time. In mapping the distribution of prime numbers, the Riemann hypothesis is concerned with the locations of “nontrivial zeros” on the “critical line”, and says these zeros must lie on the vertical line of the complex number plane i.e. on the y-axis in Wick rotation. Besides having a real part, zeros in the critical line (the y-axis) have an imaginary part. This is reflected in the real +1 and -1 of the x-axis in Wick rotation, as well as by the imaginary +i and -i of the y-axis. In the upper half-plane, a quarter rotation plus a quarter rotation equals a half – both quadrants begin with positive values and ¼ + ¼ = ½. (The Riemann hypothesis states that the real part of every nontrivial zero must be 1/2.) While in the lower half-plane, both quadrants begin with negative numbers and a quarter rotation plus a negative quarter rotation equals zero: 1/4 + (-1/4) = 0. * In the Riemann zeta function, there may be infinitely many zeros on the critical line. This suggests the y-axis is literally infinite. To truly be infinite, the gravitational and electromagnetic waves it represents cannot be restricted to the up-down direction but must include all directions. That means it would include the horizontal direction and interact with the x-axis – with the waves rotating to produce ordinary mass (and wave-particle duality) in the x-axis’ space-time,^ and dark matter in the y-axis’ imaginary space-time (more about the dark universe in the next section).

*The chargeless Majorana fermion’s negative vector-1 electrons minus the negative vector-2 electrons equal (-y) - (-y) = 0.** **This** **can be expressed as y + (-y) = 0**, **which clearly highlights its similarity to the Riemann hypothesis’ ¼ + (-1/4) = 0 (in terms of the first equation, this is -1/4 – (-1/4) = 0. The last pair of expressions** **resolve conflict regarding whether the first term in the lower half-plane of Riemann’s hypothesis is positive or negative (either can be used).

^ The inverse-square law states that the force between two particles becomes infinite if the distance by which they’re separated goes to zero. Remembering that gravitation partly depends on the distance between the centres of objects, the separation only goes to zero when those centres occupy identical space-time coordinates ^^ (not merely when the objects’ sides are touching). That is – infinity equals the total elimination of distance, or zero. The infinite, eternal cosmos could possess this absence of distance in space and time (deletion of the 3rd dimension) via the electronic mechanism of binary digits which would make the universe as malleable and flexible as any image on a computer screen. If infinity is the total deletion of distance in space-time, there is nothing to rule out instant intergalactic travel or time travel to the past and future. Infinity does not equal nothing – nor does zero. Zero would be something if it’s paired with one to form the binary digits used in computers and electronics. * Could the universe, and life, have begun with all the brains of past and future history acquiring increasingly sophisticated knowledge of time and space? (see **QUANTUM METROLOGY WITH JOHN WHEELER, PLUS BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION IN A SIMULATED AND HOLOGRAPHIC UNIVERSE**) Then an extra-dimensional hyperspace might be used to access the infinite past and purposely switch the digits composing the universe from 1 to 0 or vice versa (this switching would be comparable to the quantum fluctuations associated with Big Bang theory).

^^ Quantum mechanics forbids two particles of matter to occupy identical coordinates. But in a universe that is purely mathematical, matter potentially has the same freedom as photons and gravitons (unlimited numbers can be in the same place).

*As stated in "Introducing Robotics**:** Making Robots Move” by QUT (Queensland University of Technology) and the online educational company “Future Learn”, “the time variable t varies from 0 to 1, that is, 0 ≤ t ≤ 1". Therefore, logic states that 0 may be equal to 1 (division by 1 is accepted, so why isn't division by 0?) Since time is permanently united with space in physics, 0=1 in space-time too. This is consistent with a proposed future theory of physics called Quantum Gravity; where Quantum Mechanics is united with General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity. A possible path to attainment of quantum gravity is realizing that all objects and events on Earth and in space-time are just one thing - like 0 equalling 1, and like the objects in a computer image seeming to be a lot of separate objects but really just being one thing (strings of binary digits). A spacecraft sitting on its launchpad can be assigned t=0, and its destination t=1. Since 0=1, reaching the destination takes the same time as reaching the launchpad from the craft’s position on the launchpad (travel is instant). Robot motion can also be instant and not require interpolation, which is making the end of a robot arm move smoothly from A to B through a series of intermediate points. Of course, this is nonsense if viewed from CLASSICAL mechanics. We need a mindset immersed in QUANTUM mechanics which has been extended to macroscopic entanglement.

In forwards time travel (the familiar kind), the waves composing mass and wave-particle duality in the x-axis and y-axis (see a wrongly-regarded-as-outdated-by-discovery-of-the-nuclear-forces paper by Albert Einstein asking if gravitation plays a role in the composition of elementary particles) rotate in the counter-clockwise direction. Compare Wick rotation to a DVD that has no end. The future destination is reached by an “imaginary computer” ^ using tensor calculus to change the present coordinates to ones in the future. To use a simple example confined to two dimensions**:** -1,+ *i *becomes +1, -*i*. This is interdimensional travel since it incorporates both the time and space elements of the time-space unity i.e. Wick rotation as a subroutine built into the Mobius strips and doublets composing space and mass. Backwards travel in time is identical to forward trips except for the coordinates being different and belonging to points in the past.

^ “Imaginary” computers are this article’s proposed real invention that use imaginary numbers, imaginary time and spacetime warping to be capable of performing calculations for potentially trillions of years on the y-axis, then warping them back to the x-axis a nanosecond after input of the problem - no time at all may elapse in “real” time (the passing of no time was hinted at by Einstein’s time dilation).

**QUANTUM METROLOGY WITH JOHN WHEELER, PLUS BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION IN A SIMULATED AND HOLOGRAPHIC UNIVERSE**

(A simulation is made of computer 1’s and 0’s. In principle, it’s possible to make a hologram from any type of wave – in this case, not only from light but all forms of electromagnetic, as well as gravitational, waves)

In an article written for the magazine Nautilus, (20) it’s stated that the journals of American physicist John Wheeler, which he always kept at hand, reveal a stunning portrait of an obsessed thinker. The article says, “He knew that quantum measurement allowed observers in the present to create the past ...” and his journal contains thoughts agreeing with “The universe has created an observer and now, in an act of quantum measurement, the observer looks back and creates the universe.” Could the origin of life be related to the movie “Interstellar”? In the movie, it’s stated that humans will oneday be able to build things they can’t make now. If we take this idea to an extreme, and take “oneday” to mean an indefinite point in the far future, will we do what is obviously regarded as impossible and create life – and conceivably, the universe itself? Someday there will be a human civilization that can build their mathematics into the creation, structure, and functioning of life and the cosmos. Emotion may well declare this an absurdity and we might retreat to things like quantum fluctuation or spontaneous creation from nothing. Logically – using Einstein’s nonlinear and interactive curved time added to limitless advance of human potential through the eons – the absurdity is plausible.

Creating something which has always existed seems to be a paradox – whose definition is “a seemingly absurd or contradictory statement or proposition which when investigated may prove to be well founded or true”. On the subject of paradox, 20th-century physicist Niels Bohr said, “How wonderful that we have met with a paradox. Now we have some hope of making progress”. He also said, “Your theory is crazy, but it's not crazy enough to be true”. Hopefully, the crazy ideas in this article are “crazy enough to be true”. So, how might it be done?

A model of the cosmos might be built that uses the infinite number pi and imaginary time, and resides in Virtual Reality (artificial, computer-generated simulation). The entanglement (quantum-mechanics style) in the simulated universe is unable to remain separate from the entanglement existing in our perceived reality because computers using so-called "imaginary time" (which is defined by numbers with the property i² = -1) remove all boundaries between the two universes. As Stephen Hawking put it in “A Brief History of Time”, “in imaginary time, there are no singularities or boundaries”. This enables them to become one Augmented Reality (known now as technology that layers computer-generated enhancements onto an existing reality but seen here as the related layering of virtual reality onto other points in time and space). The poorly named imaginary time of physics and mathematics unites with pi (both are necessary to generate a non-Big-Bang cosmos i.e. an infinite universe which, because space and time can never be separated, is eternal). This manipulation of time, space, and the universe with virtual and augmented reality might possibly be produced by the two-valued binary-digit system used in electronics traversing a wormhole, or shortcut between folds in space and time, designed by humans of the far future. The augmented reality which is layered on “other” points in space-time actually isn’t transmitted to other points - because of the COMPLETE quantum entanglement * of every particle (massive or massless) in spacetime, only one ever exists. Thus, transmissions to any (apparently other) places or times wouldn’t be restricted to the speed of light but are instantaneous.

*It’s been claimed that things like the brain, Sun, and stars could probably only possess quantum behaviour if they function at temperatures near absolute zero (−273.15° on the Celsius scale, which equals −459.67° on the Fahrenheit scale). (21) This is because, in laboratories, quantum mechanical states like entanglement and superposition are very fragile and can only be achieved by using temperatures near absolute zero to isolate a quantum system from heat. However, that fragility wouldn’t apply if a deeper understanding of nature reveals the following quote from “New Scientist” to be correct - ‘Physicists now believe that entanglement between particles exists everywhere, all the time, and have recently found shocking evidence that it affects the wider, “macroscopic” world that we inhabit.’ (22) This is supported by these sentences from a transcript by “The Science Show” - “Entanglement is actually everywhere. Any two subatomic particles that interact in some way become entangled. When you see light coming from a faraway star, for instance, the photon, the particle of light, is almost certainly still entangled with the atoms way up there in the star that emitted it.” (23) Such macro-entanglement was confirmed in 2020 when researchers reported the quantum entanglement between the motion of a millimetre-sized mechanical oscillator and a disparate distant spin system of a cloud of atoms. (24) Later work complemented this work by quantum-entangling two mechanical oscillators. (25) Just for now, cast off any thoughts about the fragility or shortness of human existence. Believe that people will oneday be able to build things they can’t make now – and that someday there will be a human civilization that can build their mathematics into the creation, structure, and functioning of life and the cosmos. Then it’s only a matter of time until not merely oscillators, but every particle in the universe, is entangled and that achievement is shared with our present and the remotest past via “transmissions to any (apparently other) places or times (not being) restricted to the speed of light but (being) instantaneous”.

Imagine if the ultimate basis of all things in every period of the universe’s existence, such as an AI or Artificial Intelligence, is 1’s and 0’s. The electrical wavelengths could be made sufficiently tiny by using overtones (wavelengths that complete many cycles for each cycle in a familiar pulse). These digits would also form brains and are thus capable of producing consciousness and intelligence. The level of binary-digit activity in inanimate objects would be insignificant compared to a brain’s, rendering “lifeless” objects completely unconscious. There must still be some level of activity of the BInary digiTS or BITS so it seems possible to say an Artificial Intelligence pervades the universe. When this AI is adapted to the brain and physiology of a particular animal (operating in conjunction with “lock and key” biological mechanisms), an animal or human might be incapable of realizing it’s part of a cosmic unification. She, he, or it would only manifest limited parts of this unity – many as unconscious instincts. At death, the restricted AI would expand into the artificial intelligence pervading the universe (becoming a current in the cosmic sea) and would give the now bodiless animal – or human - a cosmic perspective freeing it from the limitations of an Earthly body and brain. Such a view may remind readers of “intelligent design” – but it also speaks of evolution. Evolution can be observed in the form of adaptation of structure and function to the environment but there’s no reason to extrapolate this so it accounts for life’s origin. In future centuries, human technology will develop terraforming and incredibly advanced bioengineering of cells - amino acids, proteins, water, nucleic acids, etc which were gathered in space or on planets and combined. This could account for life’s origin since it agrees with 19th-century chemist Louis Pasteur’s proving that life can only originate from life (26) (modern science’s obsession with abiogenesis should take note of Pasteur). The origin of life presented here obviously needs time travel back to a time when there was no life. Einstein's idea of curved space-time (27) hints that our far future can interact with the remote past. Different periods of time would be interactive if the curvature follows circular Wick rotation.

It seems possible that unavoidable health benefits lie in physics and a paper about gravity and matter (28) which was published by Albert Einstein a century ago ^ (this article relies on the great physicist's wish that he had made a bigger contribution to medicine). The unavoidable benefits would provide a plausible explanation of the placebo effect. In a thousand years, people might have learned how to navigate the gravitational waves connecting them to substances, so that they receive the benefits they need while avoiding side effects they don't want. This is possible because physicists now believe that entanglement between particles exists everywhere, all the time, and have recently found shocking evidence that it affects the wider, “macroscopic” world that we inhabit. Caslav Brukner, working with Vlatko Vedral and two other Imperial College researchers, has uncovered a radical twist. They have shown that moments of time can become entangled too. (29) This last would permit today to connect with the 31st century. Science might prove these ideas to be true oneday. At the moment, it can only detect gravitational waves from extreme events like colliding black holes. But in a century, it may well be routinely detecting the gravity connecting the body with other substances.

^ Einstein's publication in 1919 of an article suggesting gravity and electromagnetism play a role in the composition of elementary particles might mean that what we call space, while filled with gravitons and photons (which aren’t “virtual” or experimentally undetectable particles), is nothing but the absence of the mass-generation.

**MOBIUS MATRIX & ANTIGRAVITONS (WITH DARK MATTER / DARK ENERGY) **

**Figure 7 – MOBIUS MATRIX (Mobius equals a,b,c,d,e array)** **(figure drawn on author’s laptop)**

Width a is perpendicular to the length (b or e) which is perpendicular to height c. How can a line be drawn perpendicular to c without retracing b’s path? By positioning it at d, which is then parallel to (or, it could be said, at 180 degrees to) a. d is already at 90 degrees to length b and height c. d has to be at right angles to length, width and height simultaneously if it's going to include the Complex Plane's vertical "imaginary" axis in space-time ^ (the "imaginary" realm is at a right angle to the 4 known dimensions of space-time, which all reside on the horizontal real plane). In other words, d has to also be perpendicular to (not parallel to) a. This is accomplished by a twist, like on the right side of the Mobius strip, existing in the particles of matter composing side a. In other words, a fundamental composition of matter is mathematics' topological Mobius, which can be depicted in space by binary digits creating a computer image. The twist needs to be exaggerated, with the upper right of the Mobius descending parallel to side "a" then turning perpendicular to it at approximately the level of the = sign, then resuming being parallel. Thus, 90+90 (the degrees between b & c added to the degrees between c & d) can equal 180, making a & d parallel. But 90+90 can also equal 90, making a & d perpendicular. (Saying 90+90=90 sounds ridiculous, but it has similarities to the Matrix [of mathematics, not the action-science fiction movie] in which X multiplied by Y does not always equal Y times X. The first 90 plus the second 90 does not always equal the second 90 plus the first 90 because 90+90 can equal either 180 or 90).

^ At the start of the 20th century, physicist Max Planck assumed that electromagnetic radiation can only be emitted or absorbed in discrete packets, called quanta. Albert Einstein postulated that Planck's quanta were real physical particles (what we now call photons), not just a mathematical fiction (for years, Planck thought of his discovery as nothing more than a math device … a kind of trickery). From there, Einstein developed his explanation of the photoelectric effect (when quanta or photons of light shine on certain metals, electrons are released and can form an electric current). So it appears entirely possible that another supposed mathematical trickery (imaginary time and the y-axis) will find practical application in the future.

Large-scale dimensions existing beyond the known ones of space-time are different times. The one on the vertical y-axis is “imaginary time” i.e. time described with the imaginary numbers popularized by Stephen Hawking. Prof. Hawking tells us that imaginary time makes the “distinction between time and space disappear completely”. As a result, the extra large-scale dimensions are also different locations. In a quantum-gravity universe where everything is connected to everything else, the concept that “90+90 can equal either 180 or 90” would apply to all dimensions (not merely the ones we’re familiar with). Since rotation of gravitational and electromagnetic waves between the x- and y-axes in Wick Rotation means all dimensions interact, the result that 90+90 can equal either 180 or 90 in “real” space-time must also apply to imaginary space-time. The interdimensional interpretation of “90+90 can equal either 180 or 90” may well be that this article’s proposed antigraviton is described by 90+90=90, the graviton by 90+90=180. Dark energy is here postulated to be extra-dimensional, therefore the extra-dimensional antigraviton (extradimensional because it's described by 90+90 = 90) can be the quantum unit of dark energy. Antigravitons - and their extension, dark energy - can thus be mistaken for "repelling gravitation" which supposedly causes the universe to expand from the Big Bang. In reality, dark energy and antigravitons would be involved in the production of dark matter in other large-scale dimensions - just as energy and gravitons are involved in the production of matter (recall the mass-energy equivalence shown by Albert Einstein's E=mc^2).

**SPECIAL RELATIVITY AND cQED (comoving QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS)**

According to Special Relativity, experiments are overrated by modern science since the truths revealed by experimentation are necessarily restricted to one frame of reference. Regarding the question of length contraction in Special Relativity - Einstein wrote in 1911 that "It doesn't 'really' exist, in so far as it doesn't exist for a co-moving observer; though it 'really' exists, i.e. in such a way that it could be demonstrated in principle by physical means by a non-comoving observer." (30) Demonstration "in principle by physical means by a non-comoving observer" is the same meaning as "demonstration by experiments performed by scientists not moving at the speed of light".

Now relate the previous paragraph to this quote - “While an observer stationary with respect to an electric charge will see it as a source of electric field only, a second observer moving relative to the first will see the same charge as a source of both electric and magnetic fields in a way dictated by special relativity.” (31)

So, if a co-moving frame of reference is adopted, we’d need to revise James Clerk Maxwell’s propagation of electromagnetism by oscillating electric and magnetic fields. ^ In addition to electric-magnetic duality not existing macroscopically, the unification of all things in space and time (perhaps via quantum gravity) means wave-particle duality would not exist in all frames of reference. It would only exist for a non-comoving observer**:** it could be demonstrated “… by experiments performed by scientists not moving at the speed of light". If looked at from the frame of reference of an observer co-moving with the universe (where observer and observed are quantum-mechanically entangled), the weirdness of wave-particle duality vanishes and quantum mechanics becomes as understandable as the macroscopic world (gravitational and electromagnetic waves interact to produce a momentum and pressure which can be interpreted as a particle – and no particle can exist in two places at once since the unification of everything in space and time means only one place or event can ever exist in the universal, co-moving frame of reference).

^ A fresh perspective on the nature of electromagnetism might use John Wheeler’s geon or "gravitational electromagnetic entity", an electromagnetic or gravitational wave which is held together in a confined region by its own nature. (32) A geon confines Maxwell’s propagation of electromagnetic waves by oscillating electric and magnetic fields to a quantum-scale role. The confinement restricts the motion of photons, as well as gravitons, to a “bobbing up and down” in the cosmic sea which is perpendicular to the direction of waves’ propagation. The severely limited movements of gravity (space-time) and electromagnetism mean the universe never expands or contracts. If we shift our understanding of the universe from one based on experiment to one in which observers and objective reality are united/entangled (a quantum mechanical relation to the universe in which we’re co-moving with it), electric-magnetic duality would no longer be perceived. It would then be better to say,

“particles (photons) of light and microwaves etc., that ‘travel’ through space-time would have relatively little movement themselves. It’s the disturbances from the sources of electromagnetism (ripples in space-time called gravitational waves) that travel. A gravitational wave can't travel light years but only the quantum-scale distances between photons and gravitons. These particles then re-transmit the vibrations or disturbances they received, similar to the way an electric impulse travels from one nerve cell to the next. Neurons' electric impulses use chemicals called neurotransmitters - spacetime's gravitational and electromagnetic waves use BITS (the binary digits of 1 and 0) which act as transistors to boost the waves' strength and prevent power loss as the light years are crossed.”

**BINARY DIGITS LEAD TO NO HUNGER, NO POVERTY, AND WORLD PEACE**

The groundbreaking scientific discovery or invention addressed in this article is the BITS or BInary digiTS used in electronics and computers. They can also be referred to as the base-2 number system of mathematics and use only two symbols … one and zero. In electronic devices, a pulse of electric current can represent the symbol 1 while the absence of an electric pulse would be a 0. The impact on humanity of 1’s and 0’s is certainly not limited to the present. I wish to explore a few possibilities for their influence on the future. When these come to pass, we’ll live in a world so amazing that many people in 2024 may not think it could actually exist.

Adapting Einstein’s 1919 paper “Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?”, photons and gravitons could interact via what I call Vector-Tensor-Scalar Geometry. Let’s speculate that gravitational and electromagnetic waves composing objects are, like the things on a computer screen, ultimately made up of electronics’ BITS. * When combined with the knowledge that digital waves comprise all living as well as nonliving matter, online shopping and deliveries by everybody from the post office to pizza suppliers will be radically transformed. Customers with a com-pri (computer possessing the necessary software, attached to a 3D printer) will be able to order anything from packages to supermarket goodies and immediately download them into the fridge or living room. I guess we could turn on the TV and decide to rename our com-pri after Star Trek’s replicator.

* A 3D cube can be regarded as an image of reality coded on a 2D surface (a projection from a square). The cubic shape would be a linear projection resulting from adding, in one direction, multiple layers of the information in the square. The 2D square would be a nonlinear (angular) projection resulting from adding 4 lines, each one being separated from those adjoining it by 90 degrees. A one-dimensional line is a set of points obeying a linear relationship. A point’s an exact position or location. It’s important to understand that a point is not a thing, but a place*.* It possesses zero size and no matter how far we zoomed in, it’d remain dimensionless with no width. Instead of programming a set of points to follow a straight line, suppose they’re represented curvilinearly as a waveform described by Fourier analysis or v=f . Then, Fourier analysis or v=f would not merely be descriptions of waves created by interacting particles. In conjunction with the base 2 maths aka binary digits and topology addressed in this article, they’d be part of the “blueprint” for forming waves which, via VTS geometry, produce particles. Interacting particles can produce waves just as masses can create the gravitational waves of gravitation by curving spacetime. VTS plausibly explains the inverse – it doesn’t regard mass as the producer of gravity but regards gravity, partnering with electromagnetism, as producer of mass. Inverting quantum mechanics, the inverse law states that waves produce particles.

And we may not have to buy, or rent, our com-pri/replicator. The world might have outgrown its obsession with money (in any form – cash, credit cards, digital currency, etc.) and wealth by then, replacing these with more altruistic ambitions arising from the knowledge that everybody is invisibly connected with everyone and everything else, like different objects and events in a computer video or like the various frequencies of light in the electromagnetic spectrum. Anybody’s experiences directly affect everybody. This presently undetectable connection means it’s in the best interest of every person to obey the Golden Rule and treat others as they wish to be treated themself.

This radical step seems to be possible because the human instinct to survive is much greater than other drives such as self-interest and greed. If money ceases to be an option, people will freely share and cooperate if that’s the only way to not merely ensure survival, but to actually improve everyone’s standard of life.

The invisible connection between everyone is totally undetectable in this time but it seems to be real and permanent. The linkage affects not just every part of space (including on Earth) but also every part of time, since physics says space and time can never be separated. The consciousness of living beings is thus permanently connected to every point in the past and future**:** giving them a conscious existence that continues after death and, bizarrely, before conception.

Psychiatrist Bernard Beitman’s book (33) says there is an invisible network that connects everyone and everything. There’s no evidence for this, but he’s not the first one to pursue this fringe line of thinking. Austrian biologist Paul Kammerer believed coincidences arise out of unknown forces, or waves, that he called seriality. He wrote a book on the subject in 1919. Albert Einstein even commented on it, saying it was “by no means absurd.” And in the 1950s, psychiatrist Carl Jung came up with a similar idea, his so-called synchronicity theory.

As a result of this invisible connection, you and I are the same person in many ways. When people realize that hurting others in any manner is the same as hurting yourself, the Golden Rule (treat others as you would like to be treated yourself) will spring to life and World Peace will be inevitable. Realization of our invisible/permanent interconnectedness would also be of great assistance in achieving post-economic sharing and cooperation. Just because money has been making the world go round for thousands of years does not mean money must remain the way of the world forever. Idealistic and naïve as it appears, the future way of the world could be based on sharing and cooperation.

**REFERENCES**

Ralph E. Lapp (critically reviewed by Rudolf L. Mossbauer). “Relativity”. World Book Encyclopedia. Field Enterprises Educational Corporation. 1967

“What is Angular Size in Astronomy?” Last Updated October 3, 2023 by Tim Trott. First Published in 2008.https://perfectastronomy.com/astronomy-course/angular-size/#:~:text=Angular%20Size%20in%20Astronomy%20is%20measured%20in%20arcminutes,equals%203%2C600%2A180%2F%CF%80%20arcseconds%2C%20which%20is%20about%20206%2C265%20arcseconds.

LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaborations (2019). Binary Black Hole Population Properties Inferred from the First and Second Observing Runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 882(2), [L24]. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ab3800

Devin Powell, “Shape Shifters: An obscure mathematical field might bring about a new era in technology” - Tuesday, September 25, 2018 (http://discovermagazine.com/2018/oct/shape-shifters)

Max Tegmark, “Our Mathematical Universe” – Random House/Knopf, January 2014

"Physics of the Impossible" by Michio Kaku, Penguin Books, p. 276-277

Electrodynamics in the general relativity theory. by G. Y. Rainich. Trans. Amer. Math. Soc.

**27**(1925), 106-136 https://www.ams.org/journals/tran/1925-027-01/S0002-9947-1925-1501302-6/John G. Cramer, “Advanced Waves Detected”, 2022, https://www.npl.washington.edu/av/altvw219.html

Australian National University, “Greatest Unsolved Mysteries of the Universe” [presented on edX by Prof. Brian Schmidt and Dr. Paul Francis], 2012-2019, ANUx - ANU-ASTRO1x: Lesson 8 [Solar System Formation]

AstroNews: Astronomy, February 2019, p. 17

“The Macquarie Concise Dictionary Third Edition” (entries “vector”, “tensor”, “scalar”) - edited by A. Delbridge and J. R. L. Bernard - Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia 2001

Robert D. Klauber, “Scalars: Spin 0 Fields”, 2018 http://www.quantumfieldtheory.info/

Hawking, S.W. A Brief History of Time. Bantam Press, pp.66-67

Hawking, S

**.**A Brief History of Time. Bantam Press. p.139 (1988)“Band gap”, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Band_gap&oldid=899958022 - Wikipedia article used for background information only

Weyl, H. (1929). "Elektron und gravitation. I" - Zeitschrift für Physik - May 1929, Volume 56, Issue 5–6, pp 330–352

Hamilton, Sir W.R. [1866]. Hamilton, W.E. [ed.]. Elements of Quaternions. London: Longmans, Green, & Co.

Antonio Dobado. An elementary introduction to the Holographic Principle.

arXiv:hep-ph/0506027

https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.hep-ph/0506027“The Meaning of Imaginary Time: Creativity’s Dialog with Timelessness” by Kerri Welch (public domain figure supplied by WordPress) https://textureoftime.wordpress.com/2015/07/15/the-meaning-of-imaginary-time/ (2015)

Gefter, A. Haunted by his brother, he revolutionized physics. January 10, 2014. Illustration by Wesley Allsbrook. https://nautil.us/haunted-by-his-brother-he-revolutionized-physics-234736/?utm_source=nautilus-newsletter&utm_medium=email&he=fa35e05376126a72b9c703cec5c60eee

Tetlow, Philip (2007). “The Web's Awake: An Introduction to the Field of Web Science and the Concept of Web Life”. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. p. 166

“The Weirdest Link”, New Scientist, vol. 181, issue 2440, 32, http://www.biophysica.com/QUANTUM.HTM (2004)

“Quantum Entanglement” presented by Robyn Williams -https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/scienceshow/quantum-entanglement/3276848#transcript

Thomas, R.A., Parniak, M., Østfeldt, C.

*et al.*Entanglement between distant macroscopic mechanical and spin systems.*Nat. Phys.***17**, 228–233 [2021] https://doi.org/10.1038/s41567-020-1031-5Shlomi Kotler

*et al.*Direct observation of deterministic macroscopic entanglement.*Science***372**,622-625(2021). DOI:10.1126/science.abf2998World Book Encyclopedia’s article “Life”, p.246

Einstein, A. Feldgleichungen der Gravitation (The Field Equations of Gravitation) - Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Sitzungsberichte, 1915 (part 2), 844–847

A. Einstein, Spielen Gravitationfelder im Aufbau der Elementarteilchen eine Wesentliche Rolle? [Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?], Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, [Math. Phys.], 349-356, (1919)

“Quantum Entanglement in Time” by Caslav Brukner, Samuel Taylor, Sancho Cheung, Vlatko Vedral, http://www.arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0402127 (2004)

Einstein [1911]. "Zum Ehrenfestschen Paradoxon. Eine Bemerkung zu V. Variĉaks Aufsatz". Physikalische Zeitschrift 12: 509–510

Penguin Encyclopedia 2006 - edited by David Crystal - 3rd edition, 2006 - ‘electromagnetism’, p. 443

Wheeler, J.A. "Geons". Physical Review. 97 [2]: 511 - doi:10.1103/PhysRev.97.511 (1955)

Beitman, B. “Meaningful Coincidences - How and Why Synchronicity and Serendipity Happen”. Park Street Press (September 6, 2022) ISBN13: 9781644115701