The GRCh37 human genome assembly is still widely used in genomics despite the fact an updated human genome assembly (GRCh38) has been available for many years. A particular issue with relevant ramifications for clinical genetics currently is the case of the GRCh37 Ensembl gene annotations which has been archived, and thus not updated, since 2013. These Ensembl GRCh37 gene annotations are just as ubiquitous as the former assembly and are the default gene models used and preferred by the majority of genomic projects internationally. In this study, we highlight the issue of genes with discrepant annotations, that have been recognized as protein coding in the new but not the old assembly. These genes are ignored by all genomic resources that still rely on the archived and outdated gene annotations. Moreover, the majority if not all of these discrepant genes (DGs) are automatically discarded and ignored by all variant prioritization tools that rely on the GRCh37 Ensembl gene annotations.
We performed bioinformatics analysis identifying Ensembl genes with discrepant annotations between the two most recent human genome assemblies, hg37, hg38, respectively. Clinical and phenotype gene curations have been obtained and compared for this gene set. Furthermore, matching RefSeq transcripts have also been collated and analyzed.
We found hundreds of genes (N=267) that were reclassified as “protein-coding” in the new hg38 assembly. Notably, 169 of these genes also had a discrepant HGNC gene symbol between the two assemblies. Most genes had RefSeq matches (N=199/267) including all the genes with defined phenotypes in Ensembl genes GRCh38 assembly (N=10). However, many protein-coding genes remain missing from the current known RefSeq gene models (N=68)
We found many clinically relevant genes in this group of neglected genes and we anticipate that many more will be found relevant in the future. For these genes, the inaccurate label of “non-protein-coding” hinders the possibility of identifying any causal sequence variants that overlap them. In addition, Important additional annotations such as evolutionary constraint metrics are also not calculated for these genes for the same reason, further relegating them into oblivion.